At the dawn of the new millennium, African New Religious Movements (ANRMs) have renewed vigour in their task of charting and appropriating religious space outside the cultural milieu from which they emerged. ANRMs have budgeoned in Europe owing greatly to increasing transnational migration, improved transportation systems, new forms of global communication networks, politics, global marketing (commerce), tourism. This paper seeks to examine the proliferation of these religious communities in Europe. In the face of contemporary religious, political and socio-cultural realities, ANRMs are increasingly being engaged in charting local-global religious networks to further their self-insertion and self-assertion on the host religious landscape. Such networking and evolving strategies are functioning as conduits towards maintaining identity and ensuring security. This paper will further investigate how and to what extent attempts have been made through such intra-religious networks to articulate and respond to varied issues of religious, economic, cultural, political and social concerns. What significant role(s) do the ANRMs play in the adaptation of African migrants to their new cultural environment? What role(s) do the ANRMs, as diasporan communities, play in stimulating, supporting and impacting change both in their host contexts and in their motherlands?
Historical Development of ANRMs in Europe
African new religious movements (ANRMs), especially African Instituted Churches, (AICs & Pentecostals / Charismatic) have come to represent a very significant factor in the contemporary life situation of the African Diaspora in Europe and elsewhere. From the 1920`s onwards when it made its debut in Great Britain, African new religious movements have increasingly made their footprints more conspicuous on the European religious scenery. These movements have existed in varied forms on the European soil. One example of the ANRMs which shall be the focus of this paper is the many different African Christian communities. Here, we shall look more closely at the Nigerian and Ghanaian Christian initiatives which seem to represent one of the largest and most widespread African migrant religious communities in Europe. Their historical emergence in Europe can be categorised under three main levels.
One of the earliest Christian initiative was for instance the African Churches Mission (ACM) established in Liverpool in 1922. Daniel Ekaete (from the Scottish Mission in Calabar Nigeria) was the prime mover behind the movement, a group which was financially supported by churches in West Africa. Ekaete was very much influenced by Mary Slessor, and he had carried out extensive mission work on the boats. The ACM emerged in February 1922 after he had successfully gathered a handful of followers. From inception, the group established some form of cooperation with British Christians. Consequently, he was assisted at the initial stage with a church building to hold its meetings. In 1938, the mission worked among about 1000 men and women and approximately 3000 children.
The predecessors of this pioneering effort and initiative were the so-called African Initiated Churches (AICs), otherwise referred to as (Indigenous, Instituted or Independent). The planting in Europe of a brand of Christianity genuinely influenced by African culture can be said to have started only from the 1960´s first in Great Britain (UK) and afterwards in continental Europe. As Nigerians represent one of the largest African immigrants into the UK, the most visible indigenous religious initiative which characterise their community was the Aladura movement. The growing presence of the Aladura movement, one of the AICS, has been noticed in the last four decades, for instance, with the establishment in London of the first branch of the Church of the Lord-Aladura (CLA) in 1964, the Cherubim and Seraphim (C&S) in 1965, and the Celestial Church of Christ (CCC) in 1967. Other Aladura churches such as the Christ Apostolic Church (CAC), and the Evangelical Church of Yahweh (ECY) followed. As at today, branches of these churches as well as splinter formations from these earlier churches abound in different parts of Europe.
The planting of Aladura churches in Europe in the early 1960s was essentially the handiwork of Nigerian students abroad, or people on business and official assignments who had no intention of residing permanently abroad. Although, in the last three decades, the original composition of African religious communities in diaspora has altered from mainly students. The arrival of families and the birth of children (first and second generation) has led to a major shift to long-term migrants or settlers. This no doubt has far-reaching implications for the status and growth of the African religious communities.
When a few members of each group found themselves in one city or community, the initiative came for them to meet and worship together. As their membership increases, the group becomes inter-ethnic and international in outlook. It was the nucleus group of the respective churches who met for fellowship and bible studies in private homes that later metamorphosed into several branches scattered all over Europe today. Thus, branches of these churches have been established in parts of the United Kingdom, as well as in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Belgium, Spain etc. It must be noted that some of these churches already experienced schisms in their histories prior to their inception in Europe. Thus, for a particular group, there now exist some factions which are represented on the European religious scene. A second category of Aladura churches in Diaspora are those that have emerged in Europe either by severing from an already existing one or that which emanates from the charismatic quality of a leader.
The third and most recent entry of African Christian movements into the European religious scene were the Pentecostal / Charismatic movements such as the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG), the Deeper Christian Life Ministry (DCLM), the Church of Pentecost International (CPI). There are also several African-led Pentecostal churches which started in various parts of Europe. Examples are the Christian Church Outreach Mission (CCOM) led by Bishop Dr. Abraham Bediako (Hamburg), Kingsway Christian Centre (KCC) led by Matthew Ashimolowo (London), the Born-Again Christ Healing Church led by Fidelia Onyuku-Opukiri (London), and the True Teachings of Christ`s Temple (Holland) to mention a few. There are also interdenominational, (prayer / fellowship) and other para-church organisations that are characterised by somewhat loose, flexible and non-formalised organisational hierarchies and administrative structures. Some of these groups are not necessarily worshipping communities, and though they may have religious connections or backing, they seem to operate more in the socio-political sphere than in religious domains.
These African-led churches and organisations have increasingly proliferated in several parts of Europe from the 1980s onwards. Two categories can be identified: those that are indigenously African and the other that rely substantially on external input and assistance. Another distinction lies in the fact that while some exist as branches and parishes of mother churches headquartered in Africa, others began and have their headquarters in Europe, though with the intent of establishing branches in Africa and elsewhere. For the latter, they emerged and are operating in the new environment while adhering to a particular African religious tradition or worldview.
Most African Christian churches or church-related organisations which came to be established in Europe were the result of an individual initiative or the initiative of a small group. It was not until the last two decades that there were conscious strategies for missionary expansion by the mother churches in Africa. Pastors and missionaries are now commissioned to head already existing branches or parishes in Europe or to establish new ones. In earlier times, when the nucleus group emerges, they seek and apply for official recognition or affiliation with headquarters in Africa.
Earliest Phase of Religious Networking in Europe
This section examines the nature and scope of intra-religious networking amongst the ANRMs at the earlier phase of their development in Europe and highlights the factors enhancing the quest for and import of intra-religious networking in the contemporary time. The earlier decades of the existence of African Christian movements in different parts of the European continent shows that many were localised with their activities partly as a result of the unwholesome and hostile attitude of the host society. There were some involved in pastoral and evangelistic ministries who have created models of inter-racial and intercultural worshipping communities. However, they were limited in the size of their networks, denominations and relationships. They also failed to tackle the structural injustice of the societies within which they abide.
We argue that the increasing interest and vigour geared towards charting and maintaining intra-religious networks especially in the new Europe (European Union) is linked to religious, social, political as well as economic concerns. Many African Christians who come to Europe often try, in the first instance, to find out and identify with mainstream churches or denominations similar or related to theirs back home. No sooner they discover them, that the feeling of spiritual lukewarmness, or the experience of unwelcomeness and rejection stare them in the face. Due to the disappointment and pastoral neglect faced in the mainstream churches by the new arrivals in European churches, a number of new churches emerged through African initiatives and under African leadership. Thus, many African Christians abandoned the historic churches due to the disaffection they experienced first-hand.
Olu Abiola, who later became the founder of the Aladura International Church, described his experience when he said:
As an ordained minister of the Church Missionary Society of Nigeria (Anglican), I attended and worshipped at one of the Church of England near my home the very first Sunday after my arrival in London. But to my surprise, I was told at the end of the service by the officiating minister that I will be much at home with my own kind and he directed me to a Black Pentecostal Church
In the same vein, John Adegoke, the Spiritual Leader of the Cherubim and Seraphim in Birmingham, had been a member of the Anglican Church back home in Nigeria and even when he came to London in 1964. He had attended the services of the Church of England for about a year. When the first meetings of the Cherubim and Seraphim Church were held, he experienced this as a break-through. Contrasting his experience with his expectation, he remarked:
Any Nigerian will find the church here different from what he expected. The missionaries came to Nigeria, faking people to live like Christians. But here in England people do not live like Christians, many things are contrary to Christian principles. Sunday is not literally taken as the Christian Sabbath. Nobody has time for the Sunday service, whereas in Nigeria the services are long. You begin to wonder. After suffering for one year, I found people who were interested. I found myself there.
One consequence of this development was a greater identity of the African Christians with churches which were more likely to express their interests and sentiments. Many Africans, including ordained priests of mainline churches, had had to switch religious affiliation, usually from a mainline church to an AIC or a Pentecostal church on the one hand; and a traditionalist being converted into one of these Christian churches on the other hand. Churches such as the AICs and more recently the African Pentecostal (Charismatic) churches have come to fill this spiritual vacuum and traditionally offered a home away from home for many already disenchanted Africans. A kind of religious and ethnic identity was engendered through this process. What has led to this intra-religious engagement and disengagement is not so much emanating from doctrinal differences or leadership preferences but to the quest for spiritual satisfaction, religious identity, a place where they can feel at home and not as aliens, foreigners and strangers
Europe witnessed remarkable immigration from Africa in the 1960s. The steadily growing influx of people from sub-Saharan Africa to the European continent swelled in the 80s and 90s partly by the flow of refugees and asylum seekers from war-stricken countries. On arrival, the new immigrants suffered in fighting problems of homelessness and social integration, in a situation in which the host society appeared hostile and uncooperative. Clearly recognised are the facts of racial prejudice and discrimination. Coupled with these endemic xenophobic characteristics are recent developments in the European political scene especially with the attitude towards a fortress Europe. The cutting back on aids by the various European governments and the failing welfare systems; the introduction of new, uniform restrictive regulations on immigration within states of the European Union; the transposition into an electoral issue of the entry of refugees and asylum seekers; the economic recession vis a vis the unemployment rate and new poverty in Europe; the incessant political, economic instability, exploitation and deprivation in Africa all have dare consequences and implications in the religious, social, political and economic well-being of the ANRMs in Europe.
The motivations for joining or engaging in intra-religious networks is complex and varies from one individual or group to another. Essentially, most of the African Christian communities will locate this phenomenon as a vital strategy for global mission and evangelism, or what they popularly refer to as mission reversed or the remissionisation of heathen Europe.
Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that not all African Christian groups are equally enthusiastic about such formalised local, national and continental networking frameworks that are being put in place collectively. It also became evident from my informants, when some express their interest and undertake such processes as a necessary way of acquiring status legitimatisation within the European society. The public stigmatisation and denigration (the host European churches inclusive) of these religious communities as sects, cults and as exotic religions has generated and rekindled the fear of exclusion, ostracisation, and further demonisation within the European spiritual marketplace and the society at large. Thus, while some of the relatively young religious groups see their involvement in such networks as a means of status rearmament within the society, there are some well established (institutionally and financially) groups who exercise restraints in such endeavours on the grounds as they say we are already secure and well established. This therefore raises the politics of intra-religious networking in Europe.
The United Evangelical Mission (UEM) programme (coordinated by Claudia Währisch-Oblau) for cooperation between German and immigrant congregations is a case in point here. The programmes` aim is to:
assist immigrant churches to establish a visible presence within the context of German churches and society; help German churches to understand and appreciate the movement of reverse mission that is taking place through the presence of immigrant congregations; and develop projects of common mission/intercultural evangelism.
The phenomenon of intra-religious networking among African communities has been further stimulated and enhanced through their access to and appropriation of new forms of communication (media) technology in information processing and dissemination - computer websites, tele-evangelism, acquisition of jet planes (travelling pastors and evangelists), use of fax and electronic mail systems, audio and video tapes, books, tracts, magazines, handbills, leaflets etc.
Contemporary Phase of Religious Networking
In the last decade, one remarkable feature of the ANRMs in Europe, with particular reference to the African Christian communities, is their various attempts and efforts towards networking, link ups and building bridges within and outside Europe. Referring to African Initiated Churches, Ter Haar notes that their spread overseas has involved these churches in international networks of relations to which they did not have access until the late twentieth century`. Our contention here is that communities of the African religious diaspora organise themselves in such a way as to reinforce and revalidate their sense of ethnic and religious identity, ensure and maintain security, seek solidarity as well as develop survival strategies, that is, ways of negotiating a way through the hazards of the European society.
As Gerloff notes: this interconnecting has happened on three fronts: between the churches; across the language divisions (mainly French and English); and between African communities and the academy such as the University of Leeds in 1997. To this we add two features: that such relationships are not only intra- but also inter-religious; secondly, such networks have also transcended religious boundaries into social, economic and political spheres.
The conference was informed, among other factors, by :
increased immigration of people of Africa descent into the European political and monetary union; the growing importance of issues such as human rights, religious freedom, racial equality and social justice; the deficit in partnership models between African independent groups and European religious and secular institutions; and most of all, the lack of knowledge and research in African religious communities as mainstays for their survival in indifferent or even hostile environments.
Thus, part of the stated objectives of the conference was to facilitate dialogue between African (religious) communities and the (European) historic churches; to help networking between scholars and African religious communities from different countries; to help European institutions to perceive peoples` religion and spirituality as central to their survival in dignity and affirmation of life; and to contribute to policy-making in terms of mutual support and empowerment across national borders.
The 1997 Leeds Conference themed The Significance of the African Religious Diaspora in Europe was largely the spark that ignited the zeal towards religious networking among the African Christian communities and other subsequent link-up initiatives that characterised the consultations in Västerâs (Sweden), Glay/Doubs (France), Hamburg (Germany), Cambridge (UK) and the forthcoming one being planned in Belgium/Switzerland. The Leeds meeting which brought together African and European Christians, African and European scholars was unique in that, as Gerloff enthused, it served as a forum for the beginning of creating a Europe-wide African identity in dialogue with, not in enmity to, the European populations. One remarkable fall-out of this was the birth of the Council of African Christian Communities in Europe (CACCE). The 1999 Millennial Conference on Partnership of African Christian Communities in Europe culminated in the inauguration of this organisation, and was borne out of the desire of members and participants to facilitate such meetings, to affirm a sense of belonging, to encourage networking in order to support ways to enhance further cooperation and build supportive relationships across the continents.
Patterns of Networking
One feature which is becoming popular amongst the African congregations is what may be called the switching or exchange of pulpits. As a result of the network relations, different churches now embark on joint worship services and programmes. A leader of a particular church could be invited to preach in another irrespective of doctrinal leanings and emphasis. This development is not restricted to the African communities alone, but also between them and their host European churches who in most cases had provided accommodation space for the African congregations through rent, lease or mutual agreement. It must be noted that such collaborations are not devoid of restraints on both sides, especially bearing in mind the fear of loyalty and potential loss of members to other groups.
A local German newspaper reports that on October 11, 1998, the Melanchtonkirche in Frankfurt-Fechenheim opened its doors to a wider worshipping space and a multi-cultural togetherness on the occasion of the inauguration service of the Church of the Lord, Aladura. Several Christian denominations participated in this ceremony and the atmosphere showed an admirable understanding between German, Syrian and African Christian communities, a kind of unity in fellowship (See The African Courier, No. 12/13 December/January 1998. p. 13). Speeches presented by delegates of the above churches dwelt on the importance of Christians reaching out to one another irrespective of national origins.
Another characteristic of most of these movements is their adoption of such labels as international, worldwide, global, world to their nomenclatures thus indicating their religiously inspired and promising access to trans-nationalism and the wide variety of their international linkages. Thus, we have names such as the Celestial Church of Christ Worldwide, Aladura Church International, Rhema Churches International, International Central Gospel Church, the Global Revival Outreach, World Miracle Church, the Harvest Ministries International, Church of Pentecost International, Liberty Church International, Praise and Power Gospel International Ministry, Bethel Prayer Ministry International, the Victory Bible Church International, Lighthouse Chapel Church, Gospel Light International Church etc.
Some of these groups already have branches/parishes in different parts of Europe and elsewhere in the world while others are seeking to plant branches elsewhere. However, there abound some groups with a sole branch but which already attaches these terms to their names. These portray a great deal their intent to transcend local boundaries to global ones. It was this noticeable global dispersal of these churches that perhaps informs Ter Haars suggestion to re-christen them African International Churches, retaining the old initials AIC but assuming a new, contemporary meaning. She hints that, Most churches in fact label themselves as international churches, expressing their aspiration to be part of the international world in which they believe themselves to have a universal task.
A new feature of some of these churches is the symbolic display of their global operational frameworks through the hoisting of flags (banners) at or near the pulpits as well as within the church vicinity. Thus, around the pulpit or the vicinity of the altar in a typical church, you could count at least ten to twenty colourful national flags. Each flag represents the country to which the church has branched out or where there is some form of religious affiliation, or with whom they already established ecumenical relationship. This is seen somewhat as a feature which adds credibility or boost the image and strength of the particular church.
An interesting feature is the initiative of the African religious communities towards joining and creating new ecumenical links or ties at local, national, continental and inter- and trans-continental levels. Examples of such intra-religious networks include the African Christian Council (ACC) Hamburg, West Yorkshire African Caribbean Council of Churches (WYACC), Council of African Churches in Germany (CACG), Council of African and Caribbean Churches (CACC) in UK, Churches Together in Britain & Ireland (CTBI), British Council of Churches (BCC), Council of African Christian Communities in Europe (CACCE), World Council of Churches (WCC).
The Council of African Christian Communities in Europe (CACCE) was formally inaugurated in December 1999. Delegates from five countries, viz. Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland and the United Kingdom met at Notre Dame de Justice, Rhode Saint Genese (Belgium) following the Cambridge conference which had provided the groundwork three months earlier. Their legitimacy seem to be hinged on the claim that since there are over three million Christians of African origin in Europe it is our responsibility to network, share ideas and join in common activities for the spiritual, social, cultural and political development of these communities. Their objectives were summarised as:
The Council of African Christian Communities in Europe aims to:
Create strategic partnership for spiritual and social transformation in Europe; provide a platform for Africans to share common problems and find solutions in different African countries; work for peace, social, human and economic development in Africa.
At a continental level, the Council strives to represent the needs, wishes and aspirations of its members who reside and operate in various European States. It also claims to be inclusive of all those who would have sympathy with its aims and raison d`être. The membership can be categorised into three: Organisation (led by Africans and consist of people of African origin), Associate (non-African organisations, agencies and ministries), and Individual (these includes individual persons with an interest in the aims of the organisation). In any case, as this organisation is still in its infancy stage, time is needed to see how it grows and develops within the European context.
In the United Kingdom, African Christian churches at their inception have essentially been worshipping communities, until they were drawn into areas of social and political concern. It took some ample time before the African Christian communities started to exert action on the society at the pedestal of politics. The initiative towards mapping out strategies against racism, injustice and marginalisation emerged only following the birth of umbrella religious organisations such as the Council of African and Caribbean Churches (CACC). In 1979, Father Olu Abiola, leader of the Aladura Church International, called together a few ministers from different churches to consider the necessity of creating a formal grouping of African churches. The outcome was the formation of the Council of African and Allied Churches, later known as the Council of African and Afro-Caribbean Churches. Its current title is the Council of African and Caribbean Churches. The Council has a membership of some forty denominations. One of the set aim and priority of the Council is:
to educate and inform members and the general public of any religious, social and spiritual matters as may be necessary. The Council works for the unity, dignity and brotherhood of man, expresses concern for human need everywhere, decries injustice, oppression, apartheid, racism and exploitation, and cooperates with efforts to establish peace, freedom and justice in the world, to bring relief to poverty and deprivation
To achieve these objectives, the Council among other things, holds public meetings, seminars on wide-ranging topics and embarks on programmes aimed at creating a fairer and more just society. The relevance of these networks as Oshun has shown in the case of Britain is that, these bodies provided the vital links between the Black-led churches (including the Aladura churches) and the mainstream churches as represented by the British Council of Churches, on the one hand, and the British Government, the British institutions and the British society on the other.
The social dimension was also significant for African Christian communities going by the wide range of activities they were involved in. Some of the extra-religious functions they have laid emphasis upon are social welfare programmes, social work and self-help. The African Churches`Council on Immigration and Social Justice (ACCIS) was formed in May 1990, to tackle specific issues of immigration and social justice. Sharing e.V is a non-governmental organisation (NGO) based in Wuppertal, Germany. It was established by George Owusu, the overseeing Pastor of the Grace Fellowship, Wuppertal. Its set objectives includes: First, helping Africans with problems of migration by regularly visiting those in detention without a crime but for lack of papers; encouraging them in their faith with a view to freeing them as far as possible; and making sure that those who have been in prison here are not sent to prison again when they eventually get deported back to Africa as this is often the case. Second, caring for the sick in the areas of providing medicine. Visiting Africans with mental problems in hospital. Third, providing temporary accommodation and support to newly arrived Africans and helping Germans with problems such as alcoholism through the Mission House project. Fourth, supporting international, intercultural and intercontinental exchange between Africa and Europe. Thus, for more than a decade ago, Sharing e.V has been actively involved in religious, humanitarian, educational, health care, immigration, communication, cross-cultural mission and social activities both in Europe as well as in Africa.
The African Christian communities in Europe are not in a real sense inclusivistic in their total disposition. They have demonstrated strong determination to make global links and make Europeans as targets in their membership drives. However, the social composition of these churches is still largely dominated by Africans and white converts forming a negligible percentage. Research results show that many members of these churches have joined as a result of networking through various forms. Thus, we might conclude that the African Christian churches in Europe remain the focus of identity, community and security primarily for African immigrants.
 See Frieder Ludwig, Nigerian Christian initiatives in Great Britain. The African Churches Mission in Liverpool and the Aladura Churches in London Compared. Six Theses, Paper read at The Significance of the African Religious Diaspora in Europe, Tetley Hall, University of Leeds, 8-11 September 1997. p. 1.
 National Archives Ghana: CSO 18/12/51 C. Daniels Ekaete, The African Churches Mission & Training Home, p. 5, cited in Frieder Ludwig, ibid., p. 2.
 Aladura movement refers to a group to indigenous Christian movements that emerged mainly from Western Nigeria from the second decade of the last century onwards. They are so called due to their penchant and proclivity for prayer, prophecy, visions and dreams and other charismatic features. Aladura, literally translates as the praying people or owners of prayers. Churches that fall under this umbrella are the Christ Apostolic Church, the Cherubim & Seraphim, the Church of the Lord Aladura, the Celestial Church of Christ, the Evangelical Church of Yahweh; as well as their various appendages and splinter formations.
 This categorisation here does not portray the distinction to be mutually exclusive. It is not rigid but rather elastic in nature.
 See O.U. Abiola, The History of the Aladura International Church, in O.U. Abiola, An Introduction to Aladuraism, London, (n.d) cited in Frieder Ludwig, Die Entdeckung der schwarzen Kirchen. Afrikanische und Afro-karibische Gemeinden in England während der Nachkriegszeit, Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 32, 1992. p. 136
 Interview with John Adegoke (18.10.91) quoted in Frieder Ludwig, ibid., p. 136.
 A favourite biblical passage which helps them to express this feeling is Ephesians 2: 19-20 Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God´s people and members of God´s household, built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus Himself as the chief cornerstone.
 See C.O. Oshun, Encountering Aladura Spirituality in Britain. Paper read at the Significance of African Religious Diaspora in Europe Conference, University of Leeds, 8-11 September 1997. p. 2.
 Cf. R. Gerloff, Editorial, International Review of Mission, vol. LXXXIX, No. 354, July 2000. pp. 276-277.
 See C.Währisch-Oblau, From Reverse Mission to Common Mission ..We Hope. Immigrant Protestant Churches and the Programme for cooperation between German and Immigrant Congregations of the United Evangelical Mission, in International Review of Mission, ibid. pp. 467-483.
 Ibid., p. 467.
 See G. Ter Haar, Halfway to Paradise. African Christians in Europe, Cardiff Academic Press, 1998. p. 23.
 See African Christian Communities in Europe. Creating an Identity, Newsletter of a Process, December 1998. p. 1 The Leeds Conference was organised by the Jersidan Jehu-Appiah & Henry Kontor (of the British African Community) in conjunction with Roswith Gerloff and Kevin Ward (Dept. of Theology and Religious Studies, University of Leeds).
 See R. Gerloff, The Significance of the African Christian Diaspora in Europe A Report on four events in 1997/98 in International Review of Mission, Op. cit. p. 281 and Journal of Religion in Africa, XXIX, 1 (1999), pp. 115-120.
 See African Christian Communities in Europe. Creating an Identity, Newsletter of a Process, December 1998. p. 1
 See Afe Adogame, Conference Report Partnership of African Christian Communities in Europe Millennial Conference: Open Space. The African Christian Diaspora in Europe and the Quest for Human Community in International Review of Mission, Op. cit. p. 291-303.
 See Larry Bello, The Church of the Lord: A Wider Multi-Cultural Christian Fellowship, The African Courier, No. 12/13 December/January 1998. p. 13.
 G. Ter Haar, Op. cit., p. 24.
 ACC has a membership of twenty-two churches, and most worship under the roofs of German congregations. The Council seeks to promote cordial relations with German churches and also to work with other Christian bodies in and outside Germany. See Alex Afram, African Christian Council, Hamburg in International Review of Mission, ibid., pp. 434-5
 WYACC is a collection of some nineteen congregations from the inner city areas of the country, viz. Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield and Halifax, covering some ten different denominations. See Tony Parry, West Yorkshire African Caribbean Council of Churches, England in International Review of Mission, ibid., pp. 436-7.
 See Council of African Christian Communities in Europe (CACCE) Press Release Africans Unite in International Review of Mission, ibid., p. 304 and also R. Nathan African Christians United in a Unified Europe! in same volume. Pp. 299-303.
 See J. Jehu-Appiah Models of Mission and Ministry: The Council of African and Caribbean Churches (UK) in International Review of Mission, ibid. p. 442. The CACC is a member of Churches Together in England; Churches Together in Britain and Ireland; and the Conference of European Churches.
 Cf. F. Onyuku-Opukiri, The Council of African and Afro-Caribbean Churches UK, in Church & Race, January 1991, vol. 6, No. 1, p. 2.
 See C.O. Oshun, Op.cit, p. 8
 See African Courier, October/November 2000. p. 9.
The Spiritual Supermarket: Religious Pluralism in the 21st Century
April 19-22, 2001