CESNUR - Centro Studi sulle Nuove Religioni diretto da Massimo Introvigne


Reclaiming the “Temple Lot” in the “Center Place” of Zion

by R. Jean Addams
A paper presented at The 2009 CESNUR Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 11-13, 2009


The Mormon history community is generally familiar with the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) or Hedrickites, as members of their church have been called historically.  The purpose of this paper is to explore the efforts of the Hedrick brothers (Granville and his brother John), in reclaiming the “Temple Lot” in the “Center Place” of Zion as identified by revelation through Joseph Smith, Jr., in late July 1831.[i]  (The term ‘reclaiming’ is used here to differentiate the 1860’s re-occupation of this sacred space by the Hedrickites from Edward Partridge’s original purchase on behalf of the early church in 1831.)[ii]  Shortly after Smith’s arrival in Jackson County, Missouri in 1831, he announced the Lord’s intention to make this location His chosen place for the gathering of His followers.  In this revelation, the town of Independence, Missouri was designated as “…the center place; and a spot for the temple is lying westward, upon a lot which is not far from the court-house.”[iii]  (A subsequent revelation through Smith in June 1833 expanded his initial vision from a single temple to an expansive town to be built around twenty-four temples.)[iv]  Tragically, the members of the original church were driven in mass out of Jackson County, Missouri in the fall of 1833.  As a result of this forced exodus, the land claims of the church, as well as of those of individual church members were lost.[v]

            To the vast majority of the “restoration” churches who claim their original basis on the revelations of Joseph Smith as the Prophet of the Restoration, the “Temple Lot” in the “Center Place” of Zion is a fundamental tenant.  The Temple Lot and its proposed temples continue to be seen as crucial elements in preparing for the return of the saints to Independence, Missouri and the eventual return of Christ.


            In the aftermath of the death of the Prophet Joseph Smith and the exodus from Nauvoo in 1846 a significant number of Smith’s followers remained behind or scattered to nearby states.  Many of these followers aligned themselves with certain personalities who claimed to be successors to the mantle of Joseph Smith.  However, in Central Illinois four branches of the Church of Jesus of Latter-day Saints existed and had remained generally aloof from the controversy swirling around these new claimants and their followers.  These original branches were located in the vicinity of Woodford County, Illinois, and consisted of the Eagle Creek, Half Moon Prairie, Crow Creek, and Bloomington branches.[vi]  Being removed from the area surrounding Nauvoo in Hancock County and Adams County, Illinois, these saints escaped the bitter persecution and hatred manifested towards the saints 135 miles west of Woodford County.

Early Meetings

Granville Hedrick, John Hedrick, David Judy, Jedediah Owen, Zebulon Adams, William Eaton, Adna Haldeman, and several others, representing the various branches in Woodford County, began meeting together around 1852.[vii]  These existing branches joined together of their own volition into what they termed as the Crow Creek Branch of the Church of Jesus Christ (of Latter Day Saints).[viii]  The name of the church was variously modified over the next few years.  However, in December 1860, at a meeting of the Crow Creek Branch, “Much was said concerning the name of Christ’s as to the name the  Church should be called.”[ix]  Thereafter, a return to the original name of the church as used at the organization of the church on April 6, 1830, at Fayette, New York, i.e., the Church of Christ, became prevalent in their minutes, documents and correspondence. 

Years later, the inclusion in parenthesis of the term, ‘Temple Lot’ was added to the name of the church to distinguish this “Church of Christ,” i.e., the Church of Christ on the Temple Lot, from other denominations using the name Church of Christ and in particular, the Church of Christ formally called the Disciples of Christ founded by Alexander Campbell.  Thus, the name generally used today is the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) although there has been no official changing of the name by the church’s governing body.  (Many local congregations choose not to include the parenthetical enclosure ‘Temple Lot’).[x]

The first meeting of this consolidated branch took place in the home of Granville Hedrick in the winter of 1852.[xi]  Minutes of these meetings and conferences are sparse, at best, but the Crow Creek Record contains minutes recorded between 1852 and 1864.[xii]  It appears from that record that the meetings or conferences were rotated at intervals (sometimes several months) between the various homes of certain members.  Most meetings, however, were held at the homes of either Granville Hedrick or his brother John Hedrick, who farmed immediately north of the border of Woodford County in Marshall County, Illinois.[xiii]

Attempts at Consolidating with the New Organization

In 1857 an attempt was made to consolidate the membership of the Crow Creek branch with the “New Organization” (later formalized as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in 1860) in part due to the two groups’ mutual feelings on the subject of polygamy.  This disaffection to plural marriage is evidenced by a pamphlet titled The Spiritual Wife System Proven False published in 1856 by Granville Hedrick.[xiv] 

Granville Hedrick and Jedidiah Owen traveled to Zarahemla, Wisconsin in October 1857 to meet with the leaders of the New Organization and to attend their conference.  Later Hedrick also attended a meeting of the New Organization at Amboy, Illinois.  It appears from the record that a representative or representatives of the New Organization also attended at least two meetings or conferences of the Crow Creek branch during 1857 and 1858.[xv]  W. W. Blair, by invitation, attended the April 1857 conference of the Crow Creek Branch which was held in the home of David Judy in Mackinaw, Illinois.  The meeting according to Blair was presided over by Granville Hedrick “…who was the head and front of their little association…”[xvi]  These initial efforts to consolidate apparently failed after a deeper examination of each other’s doctrine and no further attempts were made by either group to merge during this era.  Throughout the 1890’s and early 1900’s, however, new efforts were made to consolidate.   (Both movements signed mutual articles of working harmony in 1918.)[xvii]

John E. Page Unites with the Church

            Former LDS Apostle John E. Page began taking an interest in the activities of the Crow Creek Branch in 1857.[xviii]  Page’s formal unification with the Crow Creek Branch on November 8, 1862,[xix] effected a dramatic change in the fledging movement.  John E. Page had been baptized in August 1833 and ordained an elder in the original church in September 1833.  His ordination to the office of apostle came in 1838 at Far West, Missouri.[xx]  However, within a year and a half of the death of Joseph Smith, Page became disaffected with the leadership of Brigham Young, and was subsequently excommunicated.[xxi]  

At a conference of the “Church of Christ (Of Latter Day Saints),” i.e., the Church of Christ, held on May 17, 1863, John E. Page ordained Granville Hedrick and three others apostles “and thus forming a quorum of five Apostles in the Church of Christ” which, obviously, included himself.[xxii]  Granville Hedrick was, thereafter, on July 19, 1863, ordained by Page “to the office of the First Presidency of the Church, to preside over the High Priesthood and to be a prophet, seer, revelator and translator to the Church of Christ.”[xxiii]  While Granville Hedrick had been the unofficial leader of the Crow Creek Branch for many years, this formal act of ordination by Page indicated that Granville Hedrick was now the presiding authority of this group of saints. This act was unanimously agreed to by all members of the branch present at the ordination.[xxiv]

Granville Hedrick’s Revelations

In 1864, Granville Hedrick received a revelation which was subsequently published in the church’s newspaper The Truth Teller.[xxv]  Granville claimed he was visited -- by an angel -- on April 24, 1864, who instructed him and his followers to “gather together upon the consecrated land which I have appointed and dedicated by My servant Joseph Smith…in Jackson County, state of Missouri….”  They were specifically told:  “And inasmuch as my church and people have been driven and scattered, therefore take counsel of me, your Lord and director, who says unto you:  prepare yourselves and be ready against the appointed time which I have set and prepared for you, that you may return in the year A.D. 1867, which time the Lord, by your prayers and faithfulness in all things, will open and prepare a way before you that you may begin to gather at that time.”[xxvi]  Thus, the time was set for a gathering of these people in 1867 to return and reclaim the “Center Place” of Zion or, more specifically, the “Temple Lot.”  Thus they intended to fulfill the revelation given to Joseph Smith in July 1831.

The Return to the Center Place

            In compliance to Hedrick’s revelation, a vanguard of three families sold their farms and homes and moved to Independence, Missouri in 1865 and 1866.[xxvii] The first to return and purchase property was John Hedrick.  He acquired a 245 acre farm near Independence on October 11, 1865.[xxviii]  It is not known whether he was accompanied by family or other members of the Crow Creek Branch.  However, in 1866 John Clark and Jedidiah Owen also made purchases of farms on April 4, 1866 and July 23,1866 respectively.[xxix]  It is probable that these land acquisitions were made prior to selling their land holdings in Illinois and to the relocation of their families.  These families exercised great faith in their cause, leaving behind family, friends, and property.  Many of these saints had been living on their farms since their exodus from Missouri in 1838-1839.  (The original church was forced to leave the State of Missouri under the infamous “Extermination” order of Governor Lilburn Boggs.)  Approximately 12 additional families, consisting of between 35 and 60 individuals, who chose to move to Independence, Jackson County, Missouri or “Zion” left Illinois in the dead of winter (probably January 1867) and arrived in Independence, Missouri, on February 27, 1867.[xxx] 

Unfortunately, no complete and accurate list of the individuals or families who returned to Jackson County, Missouri in the late 1860’s is known to exist.  There are three separate lists of 1867 Pioneers.  However, these lists were all recorded many years after the fact and do not agree with one another.  Furthermore, two of these “later” lists omit the names of the wives and children of these families and the third gives only a partial list.[xxxi] 

Ironically, Granville Hedrick is also missing from two of the three known lists -- the very person who induced them to sell their lands and holdings in Illinois and move to Missouri.  Of Granville Hedrick these lists simply note:  “he came later.”[xxxii]  Based on available research, he did, in fact, “come later,” not moving to Independence until late 1868 or early 1869.  Records show that on May 29, 1868, Granville was still in Illinois when he executed a “Power of Attorney” in behalf of his brother John Hedrick.[xxxiii]  Granville collected the balance of the monies due John Hedrick from the sale of his property in January 1866.  In a letter written by former Apostle William M’Lellin, he states that Granville arrived in Independence for a church conference on June 1, 1869.[xxxiv]

            The first meeting of the re-planted Church of Christ took place on March 3, 1867, the Sunday following their arrival in Independence.  They met at the home of John Clark (a member of the vanguard party of 1866).  A second meeting took place two weeks later on March 17, 1867 again at the Clark home. [xxxv]

Reclaiming the Temple Lot

            Meanwhile, notwithstanding Granville’s absence, adherents commenced reclaiming of the “Center Place” and specifically the “Temple Lot.”  The actual reclaiming of the “Center Place” meant purchasing (actually re-purchasing) the lots at and around the spot where Joseph Smith dedicated the temple site on August 3, 1831.[xxxvi]  The original purchase of 63.2 acres encompassing the previously dedicated site for a Temple was transacted by Edward Partridge, acting in his ordained role as Bishop for the church.  He completed the purchase from Jones Flournoy on December 19, 1831.[xxxvii] 

            John Hedrick, Granville’s brother and the leader of the small vanguard party of 1865/1866 initiated the first three purchases of lots between August and December of 1867.  Each lot was acquired separately.  Hedrick paid $250 for each totaling $750.  All three lots were properly recorded in the Jackson County Court House in Independence, Missouri.[xxxviii]  It is important to note that John Hedrick had sold his farm in Marshall County, Illinois in January 1866, for the impressive sum of $7,245.[xxxix]  Presumably, therefore, he possessed sufficient cash resources to make these land acquisitions as they became available. (John Hedrick acquired additional 165 acre farm in March 1867.)[xl]

            On the 8th of November 1869, John Hedrick ‘quit claimed’ his three lots (Nos. 16, 20, and 21) to Granville Hedrick as “President of the Church of Christ and as ‘Trustee in Trust’ for the Church of Christ.”  The Deed also contains specific language to the effect that Granville Hedrick acting as ‘Trustee in Trust’ for the Church paid John Hedrick the amount of $750.[xli]  This was the same amount that John had paid originally for these lots two years earlier.  It would, therefore, appear that John Hedrick had, at the time of purchase of these three lots, no ulterior motive.  He simply wanted to “redeem by purchase” these lots as they became available to him.

Details regarding the Church of Christ’s efforts to purchase additional lots over the next several years are nearly non-existent.  Some members of the Church of Christ, drawing on stories passed to them by their pioneer parents of 1867, recorded that Granville Hedrick received another revelation sometime after his belated arrival in Independence.  This latter revelation may explain the delay.

Estella Hedrick, daughter-in-law of Granville Hedrick recorded the following statement: “Granville Hedrick gave a so-called revelation after his coming to Missouri, to ‘scatter out and let the wind blow between you for the time of the gathering is not for many days.’”[xlii]  Other members of the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) have stated in oral traditions handed down from generation to generation, that the pronoun “you” in the quote, “…let the wind blow between you…,” should be replaced by the pronoun “us” and were told that this statement referred to certain personal differences that had developed between the brothers Granville and John.[xliii] 

The record shows that John was killed as the result of an unfortunate accident on May 11, 1872 while driving a team of horses pulling a wagon load of wood to town.   According to an obituary notice carried in the Saints’ Herald (the newspaper of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), John Hedrick’s “horses ran away, threw him off the wagon and broke his neck.  He was a good man and we miss him very much.”[xliv]  This obituary published in the RLDS  Saints’ Herald suggests an association with the RLDS church.  Though John is not listed on RLDS membership records, the tone of the comment “… we shall miss him very much,” could indicate that John Hedrick and his family may have established ties with the RLDS church.  If that is true, it could possibly explain the previous statement of Granville Hedrick, “… and let the wind blow between ‘us.’”[xlv]   Over time, however, some members of the Hedrick family did affiliate with the RLDS church.[xlvi]

Perhaps because of differences between the brothers or amongst the members and their leader, Granville Hedrick, it appears that neither the church nor any individual church member pursued the acquisition of the additional parcels of the Temple Lot for several years.  Possibly, the owners of the desired lots were not interested or were simply unwilling to sell their land between 1867 and 1873. 

Finally, however, on July 9, 1873, William Eaton (a member of the old Crow Creek branch, one of the early pioneers of 1867, and an active member of the Church of Christ in 1873) purchased lots Nos. 17, 18, 19 and 22 for the sum of $525, obviously a much better price than what John Hedrick obtained seven years earlier.[xlvii]  He followed this acquisition with the purchase of lot No. 15 on March 7, 1874 for $200.[xlviii]  (Lot No. 15 is considered the dedication site for the temple).  This brought the total of contiguous lots to eight owned by the Church of Christ or one of its members and approximated 2 1⁄2 acres.  The eight contiguous lots (lots Nos. 15 through 22) comprised the three lots quit-claimed to Granville Hedrick as ‘Trustee in Trust’ for the Church of Christ by John Hedrick in 1869 plus five lots of the seven lots now owned by William Eaton. 

Yet, less than six months later Granville Hedrick left Independence with his family and on August 29, 1874, purchased a large farm consisting of an entire section of land or 640 acres in Johnson County, Kansas.[xlix] Here he lived and farmed for the rest of his life.  How often he traveled back to Independence is unknown.  Nevertheless, on November 5, 1877 Granville Hedrick, acting as ‘Trustee in Trust’ for the Church of Christ,  purchased and recorded the five lots that Eaton had deeded to Hedrick as ‘Trustee,’ in the county courthouse for Jackson County, Missouri, for the sum of $425.[l] 

At last, eight contiguous lots, encompassing the dimensions of the site for the first temple, as laid out and dedicated by Joseph Smith in August 1831, were now in the name of the Church of Christ through their appointed ‘Trustee in Trust’.  Finally, on July 17, 1906 the City of Independence sold for $75 to Richard Hill, as “Trustee for the use and benefit of said Church of Christ.”[li] This parcel consisting of a small strip of land lying just north of these eight contiguous lots had been platted as a street but later abandoned by the city.  This brought the total property owned by the Church of Christ (Temple Lot) to 2 ¾ acres.  This comprises the property which they own today.


            As a result of Granville Hedrick’s revelation (1864) and John Hedrick’s financial resources (1867), the land known as the “Temple Lot” in the “Center Place” of Zion was saved and preserved.  Furthermore, this acquisition prompted serious attention by the RLDS and LDS churches in subsequent years regarding the remaining acreage of the original parcel of 63.2 acres purchased by Edward Partridge for the original church in 1831.[lii]

With purchases made by the RLDS and LDS churches, beginning in the late nineteenth century and continuing well into the twentieth century, the westward growth of the downtown and business areas of Independence was gradually but effectively stopped.[liii]  As religious structures were built on what had been vacant land, condemnation of the property was also avoided by government authorities for the building of schools or other government facilities.[liv]  With these acquisitions, Joseph’s vision of the nature and use of this land has been more fully realized as representatives of the “restoration movement” have reasserted controlling interest.


In conclusion, the Hedrick brothers may be credited with three separate actions to reclaim the “Temple Lot” in the “Center Place” of Zion.  These are:  (1) Granville Hedrick’s reception of specific instruction in an 1864 revelatory experience which directed his followers in the Crow Creek Branch, Woodford County, Illinois to return to Jackson County, Missouri; and (2) John Hedrick’s demonstration of the faith to be the first to return to Independence, Missouri beginning with his journey to Jackson County to purchase a farm in 1865; and, (3) John Hedrick’s commitment of financial means, and willingness to use them, to begin the acquisition of this sacred ground in 1867.  Without these responses, adherents to that original revelation received by Joseph Smith in July 1831 would find it difficult to contemplate what might have become of that “spot for the temple…lying westward, upon a lot which is not far from the court-house.”[lv]

[i] Doctrine and Covenants, Section 57:1-4, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah and Doctrine and Covenants, Section 57:1-2, Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (now the Community of Christ), Independence, Missouri.  It is noteworthy that this section (chapter) of the Doctrine and Covenants is not contained in the Book of Commandments (a volume of revelations given through Joseph Smith, Jr. that preceded the publication of the Doctrine and Covenants in 1835.)  The most likely explanations for this omission are:  (1) the Book of Commandments was not completed at the time the press was destroyed by a mob in Independence, Missouri in July of 1833 or (2) the editors/publishers opted not in include it for political reasons due to its sensitivity (“Cowdrey and Whitmer were permitted to make selections of the revelations to be printed in Zion”) – the latter ‘conjecture’ or explanation given by William A. Sheldon, Apostle, Church of Christ, to the author in May, 2006.

[ii] Jackson County, Missouri, Courthouse, Property Records, Book B, page 1 (Jones H. Flourney and Clara, his wife…to Edward Partridge, 63 and 43/160th acres in Section 3, Township 9, Range 32…dated December 19, 1831.)

[iii] Doctrine and Covenants, Section 57:1-4, LDS and Doctrine and Covenants, Section 57:1-2, RLDS (now the Community of Christ.)  See footnote #1.

[iv] Joseph Smith, Jr. released “his ‘plat’ for the City of Zion, showing that there would be 24 temples at its center.” Encyclopedia of Latter-day Saint History, 2000.  Edited by Arnold K. Garr, Donald Q. Cannon and Richard O. Cowan.

[v] As a result of the church abandonment of its properties in Jackson County, Missouri (as well as property holdings of individual members of the church), these properties were either subsequently sold at a Sheriff’s auction or sale for failure to pay delinquent property taxes or were foreclosed upon by the Federal Government or secondary owners who had not been paid under terms of their respective contracts.

[vi] Crow Creek Record, From winter of 1852 To April 24, 1864.  Preface.  Transcribed and printed by the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), no date, Independence, Missouri.  Note in Preface that the Bloomington Branch (Illinois) was organized “in the early 30’s” (meaning the 1830’s).

[vii] Ibid., page 1.

[viii] Ibid., preface and page 9 (wherein the name is specifically used in regards to ordaining “G. Hedrick… to the office of presiding high priest of the Crow Creek Branch of the church.”

[ix] Ibid., page 10.

[x] William A. Sheldon, Apostle, Church of Christ (Temple Lot) email correspondence August 23, 2006:  “There has never been Church action to attach ‘Temple Lot’ to the church name of Church of Christ.  It has been done parenthetically according to whim…We have local congregations which do not use the appellation at all.”

[xi] Crow Creek Record, page 1.

[xii] Ibid., cover.

[xiii] Marshall County, Missouri, Courthouse, Property Records, Book H, page 237.

[xiv] Spiritual Wife System Proven False and the True Order of Church Discipline, 1856, Bloomington, Illinois.

[xv] The History of the Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints, Volume 3, page 637, Independence, Missouri.

[xvi] Ibid., page 636.

[xvii] “Agreement of Working Harmony,” General Records of the Church of Christ, April 6, 1918, pages 258-261 and The History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Volume 7, pages 280-282.

[xviii] Crow Creek Record, page 4.

[xix] Ibid., page 12.

[xx] History of The Church, Volume III, pages 240-241, Salt Lake City, Utah.

[xxi] Roberts, B. H., A Comprehensive History of The Church, Volume II, page 431, Salt Lake City, Utah.

[xxii] Crow Creek Record, page 14.

[xxiii] Ibid., page 15.

[xxiv] Ibid., page 15.

[xxv] The Truth Teller. This was the official monthly newspaper of the Church of Christ published between July 1864 and June 1865 at Bloomington, Illinois.  Publication was restarted in June 1868 at Independence, Missouri (two issues only).  Of note:  the name used in the mast is the Church of Jesus Christ (of Latter Day Saints).  Obviously, in spite of efforts to return to the original name of the church, i.e., the Church of Christ, the name of the church used for the newspaper would continue to be used for many years.

[xxvi] Ibid., Volume 1, number 1, July 1864, page 4.

[xxvii] E.E. Lang, “Return to Zion”, Zion’s Advocate, Volume 7, Number 17, November 1930, Independence, Missouri.

[xxviii] Jackson County, Missouri, Courthouse, Property Records, Book 43, pages 615-616.

[xxix] Ibid., Book 44, pages 564-565 (Clark) and Volume 46, pages 405-406 (Owen).

[xxx] Flint, B. C., An Outline History of the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), pages 108-109, Church of Christ, Independence, Missouri.

[xxxi] Ibid., page 108.  List #1:  Flint records the names of several of the accompanying women on his list but also includes names of those who actually came in 1865 and 1866 as well as those who came later in 1868 or 1869 (besides Granville Hedrick.)  He also includes the name of William E. M’Lellin who joined the church in 1869 in Independence.  List #2:  Nicholas Denham prepared a typed record of those original pioneers in 1999.  (Author interviewed Denham in September 2005 at his home in Independence, Missouri.  He was 90 years old and very alert with an excellent memory.  He is descended from the Frisbey family who came to Independence in 1867.)  He states in an opening paragraph to William A. Sheldon (to whom he provided the list):  “The following is a list of the families who came to Independence, MO, from Bloomington, Ill. Early in the year 1867 as taken from records left by my mother, Marion Olive Frisbey Denham.  There are no women or children mentioned.  He excludes the names of John Hedrick, John Clark, Jedidiah Owen, or Alma Owen, which I interpret to mean that he knew that they were already in Independence.  To his typed list he appended notes in his own handwriting indicating “The Hedrick family (Granville’s – my comment) came at a later date!”  A copy of the list with comments was provided to the author by William A. Sheldon.  List #3:  Angela Denham Wheaton in a handwritten note dated December 4, 1977:  “This (meaning the attached list) was given to me by Uncle Alma Frisbey (born Sept 12, 1867 at Independence,  MO.) when he made his home with us in his last years.”  The list is in Alma Frisbey’s handwriting.  He also notes next to the entry for Granville Hedrick “came later.”  He notes next to each adult male “and wife” but does not provide any female names.  However, he does list two sets of children’s names.  He excludes the names of John Hedrick, John Clark, Jedidiah Owen, or Alma Owen.  A copy of the list with comments was provided to the author by Richard Wheaton, son of Angela Denham Wheaton.

[xxxii] Ibid., Lists #’s 2 and 3.

[xxxiii] Marshall County, Illinois, Courthouse, Property Records, Book 5, page 138 (recording the Power of Attorney from John Hedrick to Granville Hedrick.  John Hedrick prepares POA in Independence, Missouri; and Book 17, pages 205-206. (POA executed on May 29, 1868.)

[xxxiv] William E. M’Lelland letter to “Our very dear Friends.”  Brownsville, Missouri, 12 July 1869, Miscellaneous Letter and Papers, P13, f185, Community of Christ Archives.

[xxxv] Flint, B. C., An Outline History of the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), pages 108-109, Church of Christ, Independence, Missouri.

[xxxvi] History of The Church, Volume I, page 196, Salt Lake City, Utah.

[xxxvii] Jackson County, Missouri, Courthouse, Property Records, Book B, page 1 (Jones H. Flourney and Clara, his wife…to Edward Partridge, 63 and 43/160th acres in Section 3, Township 9, Range 32…dated December 19, 1831.)

[xxxviii] Ibid., Lot #21, Book 50, page 331; Lot #22, Book 50, page 332; Lot #16, Book 53, pages 526-527.

[xxxix] Marshall County, Illinois, Courthouse, Property Records, Book 17, pages 205-206.

[xl] Jackson County, Missouri Courthouse Property Records, Book 48, page 343.

[xli] Ibid., Book 73 ,pages 1-2.

[xlii] Handwritten statement Nicholas F. Denham quoting Estella Hedrick dated March 29, 1999.  See also footnote #29.  Copy provided by William A. Sheldon.

[xliii] Interview with Geri Adams (direct descendent of Granville Hedrick) and others, September 2005 at Church of Christ building on the Temple Lot,  Independence, Missouri.

[xliv] Saints Herald, Obituaries, 1872, Page 574.

[xlv] Interview with Geri Adams (direct descendent of Granville Hedrick) and others, September 2005 at Church of Christ building on the Temple Lot, Independence, Missouri.

[xlvi] Index of RLDS Membership Records, Community of Christ Archives, Independence, Missouri.

[xlvii] Jackson County, Missouri, Courthouse, Property Records, Book 104, page 311.

[xlviii] Ibid., Book 104, page 517.

[xlix] Johnson County, Kansas, Courthouse, Property Records, Book 29, page 62.

[l] Jackson County, Missouri, Courthouse, Property Records, Book 115, pages 452-454.

[li] Ibid., Book 264, pages 621-622.

[lii] Ibid., Book B, page 1.  See footnote #35.

[liii] The LDS church made its first purchase of nearly 26 acres of the original 63.2 acres in early 1904.  Individual RLDS members began purchasing lots “as early as the 1880’s – maybe the late 1870’s.” (Email from Ron Romig, Archivist, Community of Christ, September 1, 2006.)  These lots were later deeded to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

[liv] Reimann, Paul E.  1961.  A Generous gift from the First Presidency in 1950 for Education at Independence, Missouri., LDS Library/Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.  The gift was in direct response (by the LDS church) to the potential process of eminent domain by the City of Independence, Missouri wherein they could take possession of the vacant land (purchase of 1904) to build a new high school.  The mayor of Independence and the city’s school board president traveled to Salt Lake City in 1950 to discuss the matter with President George A. Smith.  The donation was $25,000, ironically this was the same amount that the LDS church paid for the 26 acre tract of land in 1904.

[lv] Doctrine and Covenants, Section 57:1-4, LDS and Doctrine and Covenants, Section 57:1-2 RLDS (now the Community of Christ.)  See footnote #1.