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1 See James A. Beckford, 1985. Cult Controversies: The Societal Response to the New Religious Movements. New York: Tavistock, P. 225; and James A. Beckford, 1983. "The 'Cult Problem' in Five Countries: The Social Construction of Religious Controversy." in Eileen Barker, ed., Of Gods and Men: New Religious Movements in the West. Macon, Ga: Mercer University Press, p. 211.

2 Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi, 1994, "Alien Gods, Alien Identities: The 'Anti-Cult' Lobby in Isreal." In Anson Shupe and David G. Bromley, eds., Anti-Cult Movements in Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Garland, p. 242

3 Reender Kranenborg, 1994, "The Anti-Cult Movement in the Netherlands: An Unsuccessful Affair." In Shupe and Bromley, eds., Ibid, p. 226

4 Massimo Introvigne, 1995. "The Secular Anti-Cult and Religious Counter-Cult Movement." In Robert Towler, ed., New Religions and the New Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 37

5 James T. Richardson, 1996. "Brainwashing' Claims and Minority Religions Outside the United States: Cultural Diffusion of a Questionable Concept in the Legal Arena." Brigham Young University Law Review 1996, No., 4, p. 903

6 Marat S. Shterin and James T. Richardson, 2000. "Effects of the Western Anti-cult Movement on Development of Laws Concerning Religion in Post-Communist Russia." Journal of Church and State Vol. 42 (2), pp. 258-9

7 Ibid, pp. 260-1

8 Ibid, p. 259

9 The Davidson Library at the University of California Santa Barbara intends to keep all CAN documents in the original order (i.e., in the boxes are archived) with their original indices. Hence primary documents referred to in the remainder of this paper can be found in boxes 93-95.

10 The importance of such privileges was demonstrated in Moscow in 2001 when a court ruled that the Jehovah's Witnesses, contrary to the insistence of state prosecutors, did not break up families, attempt to convert minors without parental consent, promote members' suicide, or incite hatred and intolerance. This ruling was significant for the Witnesses, permitting them to engage in such mundane practices (at least by American standards) as renting property or handing out leaflets. Critics had charged that the attempt to ban the Witnesses was meant to preserve the almost monopoly position of the Russian Orthodox Church. See Michael Wines, 2001. "Religious Sect Gains Victory in Moscow Trial." New York Times February 24, 2001. (Go to www.nytimes.com and search for "Religious Sect Gains Victory in Moscow Trial" for abstract)  [Note: After this paper was read, the decision was overturned on appeal; the case is going on]

11 Anson D. Shupe, Jr., Bert L. Hardin, and David G. Bromley, 1983. "A Comparison of Anti-Cult Movements in the United States and West Germany." In Eileen Barker, ed., Of Gods and Men: New Religious Movements in the West. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, p. 185

12 James T. Richardson, 2000. "Minority Religions, Religious Freedom, and the New Pan-european Political and Judicial Institutions." In Derek H. Davis, ed., Religious Liberty in Northern Europe in the Twenty-first Century. Waco, Tx. Baylor University, The J.M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, p. 13.

13 For a succint summary, see Donna Gomien, 1991. Short Guide to the European Convention on Human Rights. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Press, pp. 10-15

14 Ibid.

15 Richardson, 2000. Op cit., p. 16

16 Ibid., p. 29

17 Steve Bruce and Chris Wright, 2000. "Law, Social Change, and Religious Toleration." In Derek H. Davis, ed., Religious Liberty in Northern Europe in the Twenty-first Century. Waco, TX: Baylor University, The J.M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies, P. 34

18 See Joel Best, ed., 2001, How Claims Spread: Cross-National Diffusion of Social Problems. Hawthone, NY: Aldine deGruyter www.degruyter.de/aldine/best.html

19 See Shupe, Hardin and Bromley, 1982. op cit., p. 189.

20 Beckford, 1985 op cit., pp. 224-7.

21 Shupe, Hardin, and Bromley, 1983. op cit.

22 Anson D. Shupe, Jr. and David G. Bromley, 1980, The New Vigilantes: Deprogrammers, Anticultists and the New Religions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. 88-92

23 Yehuda Bauer, 1988. "Euthanasia, Nazism, and Psychiatry." Oxford, England: Holocaust Conference, July.

24 Ibid

25 John Lofland, 1982, "White-Hot Mobilization: Strategies of a Milllenarian Movement." In James L. Wood and Maurice Jackson, eds., Social Movements: Development, Participation, and Dynamics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, P. 221

26 Copy of Letter

30 James and Marcia Rudin, 1980. Prison or Paradise? The New Religious Cults. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. This book helped popularize the ACM claims that North America in the 1970s was experiencing an unprecedented wave of threatening new religions and that millions of Americans had become involved and were at risk. It also inspired David G. Bromley and Anson D. Shupe, Jr. to write what they considered a more balanced corrective: Strange Gods: The Great America Cult Scare. Boston, Beacon Press, 1981

31 Letter of Michael D. Langone, AFF, to Claire Champollion, Paris, France, November 8, 1989

32 Cynthia S. Kisser, 1990, "Report to CAN Board of Directors. April Trip to Europe by Executive Director Cynthia Kisser" Unpublished document, See CAN Boxes 93-95

33 Quoted in "Sectes: la France epinglée par les USA au nom de la liberté religieuse." June 14, 1999 Taken from Yahoo! Actualities International

34 See Anson D. Shupe Jr., and David Bromley, 1982, "Shaping the Public Resonse to Jonestown: People's Temple and the Anticult Movemet." In Ken Levi., ed., Violence and Religious Commitment: Implications of Jim Jones' People's Temple Movement. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, pp. 105-38

35 J. Gordon Melton, 2001. "The Modern ACM in Historical Perspective." Unpublished manuscript obtained via the Internet by consent of author. See particularly sections "Internationally" and "Europe in the 1990s."

36 "International Congress on Cults Convenes Resolution on Cults." The Cult Observer, January/February 1989, p. 15

37 Mass mailing letter from Herbert L. Rosedale, AFF President, July 28, 1987

38 The terms "congress," "committee," "conference," and "meeting" have become so interchangeably used in both ACM correspondence and among languages that it at times becomes difficult to know how to refer to these conclaves. For example, the "meeting" in 1990 (called that by Herbert L. Rosedale) was described on the invitation to participants in French, "Reunion Internationale sur les 'sectes."

39 Letter of Gotz Reimann, First Secretary/Cultural Affairs, Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany, Washington, D.C. to Cynthia Kisser, CAN, Chicago, IL., December 1, 1994

40 Letter of Hans-Werner Carlhoff, Ministerialdirigent, Ministerium Fur Kultus Und Sport, Baden-Wurttenberg, Stuttgart, Germany to Cynthia S. Kisser, CAN, Chicago, IL, November 13, 1995

41 Mass mailing letter of Janine Tavernier, Présidente de l'UNADFI and Jacques Richard, Provisory Secretary, Paris, France, February 22, 1994

42 See Anson Shupe and Susan E. Darnell, 2000. "CAN, We Hardly Knew Ye: Sex, Drugs, Deprogrammers' Kickbacks, and Corporate Crime in the (old) Cult Awareness Network." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, Houston, Texas.

43 Richardson, 2000, op cit., p. 29

44 See, for example, Derek H. Davis, ed., 2000. Religious Liberty in Northern Europe in the Twenty-First Century. Waco, TX: Baylor University, J. M. Dawson Institute of Church State Studies; Alain Garay, 1999. L'activisme anti-sectes : de l'assistance à l'amalgame. Lewinston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press; Marat S. Shterin and James T. Richardson, 2000. "Effects of the Western Anti-Cult Movement on Development of Laws Concerning Religion in Post-Communist Russia." Journal of Church and State Vol. 42 (2): 247-71; and James T. Richardson and Marat Shterin, 1999. "Minority Religions and Social Justice in Russian Courts: An Analysis of Recent Cases." Social Justice Research Vol. 12 (4): 393-408

45 See e.g. The Rise of Hatred and Violence in Germany, 1997; Restoring and Safeguarding Religious Freedom: A Guide to Protecting Your Human Rights in Europe, 1997; What America Needs to Know About Discrimination in Germany, 1997; and Religious Apartheid, 1997 (Vols. 1-2). All are published by the Human Rights Office and other units within the Church of Scientology International, headquarted in Los Angeles, California.

46 Greg Garrison, 2000. "Official: Religious Freedom Under Attack." Birmingham News. 9/17/00

47 2000 Annual Report on International Religious Freedom see: http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/irf/irf_rpt/irf_index.html

48 Ibid

49 John G. Clark, Jr., Michael D. Langone, et al., 1981, Destructive Cult Conversion: Theory, Research and Practice. Boston, MA: Center on Destructive Cultism, American Family Foundation

50 Dick Anthony, 1999, "Pseudo-science and Minority Religions: An Evaluation of the Brainwashing Theories of Jean-Marie Abgrall." Social Justice Research Vol. 12 (4): 421-56

51 Melton, 2001. op cit., p. 16

52 Ibid.

53 "French Assembly Passes Legislation to Control Sects." Reuters News Service, June 22, 2000

54 See e,g, Xavier Ternisien 2000, "Already Passed by the Assembly, the Anticult Law is Criticized by the Churches." Le Monde, September 16. www.cesnur.org/testi/fr2K_sept1_en.htm

55 Melton, 2001, op cit, p. 11

56 Ibid

57 Derek H. Davis, 2000. "Religious Persecution in Today's Germany: Old Habits Renewed." In Derek H. Davis, ed., Religious Liberty in Northern Europe in the Twentieth Century. 2000. Waco, Tx: Baylor University, J. M. Dawson Institute of Church-State Studies.

58 "Warnings About Scientology in Hamburg, Stuttgart and Bavaria." 2000, The Cult Observer, Vol 17 (3) p. 12

59 Davis, op cit., pp. 107, 109, 122. The Nazis, as well as modern secular socialist and communist governments, have been wary of groups whose ultimate allegiance is to something other than the regime.

60 See "Firestorm Hits MS Windows in Germany." Reuters (ZDNet News), November 3, 2000; and "Scientologist CEO Lashes Out Against Germany," Reuters, Novermber 5, 2000 Links: www.zdnet.com/zdnn/stories/news/0,4586,2650088,00.html http://www.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/11/06/germany.scientology.reut/

61 Peter Mueller, "Scientology Organization Sues Interior Agency and 'Sect Commissioner'” TAZ, Hamburg, Germany, October 5, 2000 http://cisar.org/001005a.htm

62 See for a comparison, Stuart A. Wright, 1995, Armageddon In Waco: Critical Perspectives on the Branch Davidian Conflict, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

63 Hubert Seiwert, 1999. "The German Enquete Comission on Sects: Political Conflicts and Compromises." Social Justice Review Vol, 12 (4): 323-40. Even the North American evangelical Protestant magazine Christianity Today reviewed the report's findings of mostly benign sect behavior. See Richard Nyberg, "Sects Not So Bad After All?" Christianity Today, September 7, 1998, P. 24

64 Melton, op cit.

65 Martin E. Marty, 1970, Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America, New York: Harper & Row.

66 Kevin Cantera, 2000. "Hatch Calls for Renewed Protection of Religious Freedom Worldwide." Salt Lake Tribune, October 9. http://www.cesnur.org/testi/fr2K_oct1.htm

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